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Analog Circuit Design: Structured Mixed-Mode Design, by Michiel Steyaert (Editor), Arthur H.M. van Roermund

By Michiel Steyaert (Editor), Arthur H.M. van Roermund (Editor), Johan H. Huijsing (Editor)

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Die Radio-Frequenz-Identifikation (RFID) dient seit etwa 15 Jahren zur Identifikation von Personen, Objekten und Tieren. Mit der inzwischen intestine entwickelten Technologie können heute Rationalisierungen in vielen Wirtschaftsbereichen erreicht werden. Das Buch bietet eine Darstellung bestehender Anwendungen und Technologiegrundlagen sowie eine Beschreibung der Möglichkeiten und Grenzen von RFID.

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Example text

5 (Figure 8). However, for the sake of brevity, only a third-order harmonic distortion is calculated here and not an intermodulation distortion product. With respect to the model complexity, the only difference is that fewer terms are involved in the calculations. Also the output conductances are omitted, but they are in practice readily added on the diagonal of the compacted MNA matrix. A single transconductor is modeled as: The nonlinear coefficients and are derived from the classic harmonic distortion expressions and can be found in [7].

It is not the purpose of this text to discuss all these aspects but rather illustrate the way of reasoning, the use of generic models and error-reduction techniques. In order to keep it simple we will even ignore the dynamic behavior in our examples. We will discuss in this section some examples of single-stage amplifiers based on an idealized bipolar transistor biased in its normal operating region. It is characterized by its exponential relation between base-emitter voltage and collector current and a fixed relation between base current and collector current: Although this is a highly simplified model for the device, it serves our purpose of showing trends in performance improvement due to different design measures.

The initial population can be anything from a precisely calculated set of values to a completely random set of numbers. The only restriction is that all parameters are within defined bounds. The initial values and their bounds can influence the convergence speed and the number of iterations necessary to yield a useful solution. The netlist must be parameterized and apart from the parameter values be a valid file that is ready for simulation. In addition, the commands that extract and print out the desired performance characteristics of the netlist must be present.

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