By Jeremy Bentham
Based at the assumption that people search excitement and keep away from discomfort, Bentham's utilitarian point of view varieties a advisor to ethical decision-making. With the "greatest happiness of the best quantity" as his aim, the writer makes an attempt to spot the assets and forms of excitement and discomfort in addition to the ways that they are often measured in assessing ethical recommendations. issues of intentionality, recognition, reasons, and tendencies help Bentham's arguments. The textual content concludes together with his survey of function and the position of legislation and jurisprudence, a desirable workout within the concept of social reform that explores conflicts among the pursuits of the bulk and person freedom.
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Additional info for An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
Other animals. These may also be called the pleasures of good-will, the pleasures of sympathy, or the pleasures of the benevolent or social affections. XI. 9. The pleasures of malevolence are the pleasures resulting from the view of any pain supposed to be suffered by the beings who may become the objects of malevolence: to wit, 1. Human beings. 2. Other animals. These may also be styled the pleasures of ill-will, the pleasures of the irascible appetite, the pleasures of antipathy, or the pleasures of the malevolent or dissocial affections.
The pleasures of skill. 4. The pleasures of amity. 5. The pleasures of a good name. 6. The pleasures of power. 7. The pleasures of piety. 8. The pleasures of benevolence. 9. The pleasures of malevolence. 10. The pleasures of memory. 11. The pleasures of imagination. 12. The pleasures of expectation. 13. The pleasures dependent on association. 14. The pleasures of relief. III. The several simple pains seem to be as follows: 1. The pains of privation. 2. The pains of the senses. 3. The pains of awkwardness.
Government. 32. Religious profession. VII. 1. Health is the absence of disease, and consequently of all those kinds of pain which are among the symptoms of disease. A man may be said to be in a state of health when he is not conscious of any uneasy sensations, the primary seat of which can be perceived to be anywhere in his body. In point of general sensibility, a man who is under the pressure of any bodily indisposition, or, as the phrase is, is in an ill state of health, is less sensible to the influence of any pleasurable cause, and more so to that of any afflictive one, than if he were well.