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An Introduction to Structural Analysis. The Network Approach by S. D. Berkowitz

By S. D. Berkowitz

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Extra info for An Introduction to Structural Analysis. The Network Approach to Social Research

Example text

In earlier fieldwork studies, consequently, different results would crop up which were simply accidental by-products of the use of slightly different graphic techniques. However, J. Clyde Mitchell collected together many of the representative papers written during this second wave of field studies and was able to provide an overarching framework in which methodological and substantive disagreements could clearly be distinguished from one another. In the process, he also built bridges to the more formal interpretations of networks which were being developed in the United States at the time.

To wit: Phase I Matrix Phase II Matrix g β α ß 0 1 1 0 0 1 {l_ 0 Thus, in order to analyze the process of merger, we must find some mathematically recognizable way of distinguishing between the reciprocal, but independent, emanations represented in the Phase I Matrix and the implicitly reciprocal relations shown in the Phase II Matrix. Structural analysts have devised two general ways of doing this. The first of these takes advantage of the fact that bonded-ties are always reciprocated. Each directed tie, in effect, implies its mirror image: if g and ß are nodes in a linear graph, and R is a binary relation between them: gRß iff ßRg Since, by contrast, emanations are not inherently symmetric, it is possible to dissociate them from their reciprocals by introducing finer distinctions into their definition and then creating separate matrices based on these discriminations.

8 During the last two decades, however, structuralists have discovered a range of phenomena going on between and among nuclear family units which suggest that a larger, systemic focus is called for—even in studies of the dynamics of these smaller units themselves. In the mid-1950s, Elizabeth Bott and a group of colleagues connected with the Tavistock Institute in Britain conducted a series of in-depth "home interviews," "clinical interviews," and "case conferences" with 20 carefully selected nuclear families.

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