By Frank Werner
In an environmental lifestyles cycle evaluation of goods (LCA), an unambiguous, scientifically dependent, ‘objective’ attribution of fabric and effort flows to a product is natural fiction. this is often as a result primary epistemological stipulations of LCA as a modelling strategy less than the complexity of our socio-economic method. as a substitute, a variety of psychological versions and values consultant this attribution. This results in a sensible version in a selected determination situation.
This e-book indicates for the 1st time how psychological types and values impact this attribution within the existence cycle stock step of LCA. one of many key findings is that the various administration ideas for a sustainable use of fabrics needs to be taken into consideration for the attribution of fabric and effort flows to a product. differently, development thoughts suggested by means of an LCA may well end up to even aggravate the environmental state of affairs if reassessed from a meta-perspective.
As a final result of this publication, the declare of unambiguitiy (‘objectivity’) of the lifestyles cycle stock has to be deserted. A group-model construction approach for LCA is constructed that enables one to know the choice makers' psychological versions and values within the stock research on a case- and situation-specific foundation. in basic terms by way of this, LCA effects turns into proper in a decision-making process.
Two case experiences at the modelling of recycling and different end-of-life techniques of aluminium home windows and beech wooden railway sleepers in LCA supplement the methodological part.
This e-book is a ‘must have’ for researchers, experts and practitioners within the fields of decision-oriented lifestyles cycle evaluate in addition to product-related environmental administration, modelling and decision-making.
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Additional info for Ambiguities in Decision-oriented Life Cycle Inventories: The Role of Mental Models and Values
9). Normally, four different steps of an LCA are distinguished47. The methodological structure of LCA is shown in Figure 2-1. Step 1: Goal and Scope Definition. A preliminary definition of the technical framework of an LCA study is given. Step one implies the statement of the intended application of the study and the specification of the products (the ‘functional units’48) and their respective life cycle to be considered; a first provisional setting system boundaries and choice of the allocation procedures; the impact assessment method to be applied; the data requirements; the type of critical review and the format of the report.
This book postulates a second source of systematic error related to the setting of system boundaries (as final defining element of an input-output model) in the life cycle inventory analysis: the reductionistic way of modelling in the life cycle inventory analysis resulting in an input-output model and the representativeness and adequacy (validity) of the model in view of the characteristics of the real material and energy flows of the socio-economic system. If system boundaries are not set representing the ‘causalities’ of the specific decision situation, improvement options derived from the model can lead to sub-optimal solutions if re-evaluating them from a metaperspective.
Step 3: Life Cycle Impact Assessment evaluates the inventoried in- and outputs with regard to their environmental implication. Several steps can be distinguished within the assessment: the classification (the assigning of inventory data to impact categories), the characterisation (the weighting of the assigned inventory data within impact categories) and the valuation (the aggregation of the impact categories by normalisation and addition). Step 4: Interpretation where the findings of the inventory analysis and the impact assessment are interpreted.