Ageing And Employment Policies: The Arable Crop Sector by Organisation for Economic Co-Operation a

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6 shows fertiliser use by nutrient and pesticide application by class, for selected crops in the United States. 5. Average application rates of fertilisers by nutrient and by crop in the OECD area, 1992-2000 N P2O5 K2O Rate (Kg/ha) Wheat 83 37 27 Maize 135 56 66 Barley 80 32 23 Rice (Paddy) 121 74 72 Rapeseed 101 33 41 Soybeans 30 39 71 Sunflower 44 31 37 Notes: Four-year average. Australia is not included due to data limitations. Source: IFA/IFDC/FAO, various issues. Overall, these data reveal that the most frequently applied nutrient in arable crop farming is nitrogen.

Technological advances, including AGRICULTURE, TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT – THE ARABLE CROP SECTOR – ISBN-92-64-00996-5 © OECD 2005 – 41 better farming practices and improved varieties, as well as policies all contributed to increasing yields. Policy developments, for example, such as the 1992 CAP reform in the EU, are an important factor in influencing arable crop production, yield and area. The evidence so far shows that the arable crop yields in the EU for the post-CAP reform period (1995-2002) increased at a higher rate than in the pre-1992 period, suggesting that technological advances more than offset the effects of reduction in market price support for arable crops brought about by the 1992-CAP reform.

All rice production is irrigated. In Europe, rice is cultivated with permanent flooding. Oilseeds and oilseed products occupy a prominent place in world agriculture and play an important role in the agricultural sectors in all OECD countries, either through production or utilisation. Oilseeds rank third after livestock products and cereals, in terms of value of both world production and world trade. Virtually all oilseeds are crushed and processed to produce oil and meal. Most of the vegetable oil is used for human consumption, although relatively small but growing quantities are utilised for industrial purposes.

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