A Handbook of Industrial Ecology by Robert U. Ayres

By Robert U. Ayres

Commercial ecology is coming of age and this tremendous e-book brings jointly prime students to offer a cutting-edge review of the topic.

Each a part of the publication comprehensively covers the subsequent matters in a scientific variety:

• the objectives and achievements of business ecology and the historical past of the sphere

• technique, masking the most ways to research and evaluation

• economics and business ecology

• commercial ecology on the national/regional point

• commercial ecology on the sectoral/materials point

• functions and coverage implications.

The authors are all specialists on the leading edge of the sector and the bibliography on my own will turn out beneficial as a finished consultant to the literature. This impressive instruction manual can be an integral reference for college kids and students operating in environmental administration, commercial ecology and environmental and ecological stories.

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But this already belongs to the post-1968 cultural revolution of environmentalism we will treat next. THE PIONEERS OF ECONOMY-WIDE MATERIALS FLOW ANALYSIS IN THE LATE 1960S In the late 1960s, when it became culturally possible to take a critical stance with respect to economic growth and consider its environmental side-effects, the stage was set for a new twist in looking at society’s metabolism. Up to this point, metabolism had mainly come up in various arguments claiming that natural forces and physical processes did, indeed, matter for the organization and development of society, and that it would be reasonable, therefore, to attribute to them some causal significance for social facts.

He was not, as the participants of the conference note, concerned about the exhaustion of mineral resources. xxix). The issue of possible exhaustion of mineral resources was taken up by the Harvard geologist Nathaniel Shaler in his book Man and the Earth (1905). In considering longer time series, he noted that ‘since the coming of the Iron Age’ the consumption of mineral resources had increased to a frightening degree. In 1600 only very few substances (mostly precious stones) had been looked for underground.

The distinction, however, makes sense not only from a methodological point of view, but also in a historical perspective: the ‘industrial metabolism’ analogy was currently in use during the 1980s, especially in relation to the pioneering work of Robert Ayres, first in the US, then at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria) with William Stigliani and colleagues, and more recently at INSEAD (Fontainebleau, France) (Ayres and Kneese 1969; Ayres 1989a, 1989b, 1992b, 1993b; Ayres et al.

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