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30-Second Elements: The 50 most significant elements, each by Eric Scerri

By Eric Scerri

Whilst used to be radium stumbled on? who're Dmitri Mendeleev and Glenn T. Seaborg? Who found uranium’s radioactivity? Which aspect comes in handy for relationship the age of Earth? And why doesn’t gold have a systematic identify? 30-Second parts offers you with the very foundations of chemical wisdom, explaining concisely the 50 most vital chemical components. This publication makes use of priceless glossaries and tables to quick song your wisdom of the opposite sixty eight components and the relationships among them all.

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Additional resources for 30-Second Elements: The 50 most significant elements, each explained in half a minute

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On progressing across the 3d series, the occupied 3d level moves from a position high in the gap to a position below the top of the 2p band, owing to the stabilizing effect of the increasing charge on the transition-metal nucleus. Moreover, d bands tend to become narrower on moving across the series for the same reason. The structure more frequently encountered when a transition metal is present in the structure, is for the 3dn level to fall in the gap. Narrow d bands are formed by 3d(M) – 2p(O) hybridization, which frequently leads to optical absorption in the visible – leading to the observed colors (red for hematite, green for YIG, and black for magnetite) [14].

The moments residing in a partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f shell can be inferred from Hund’s rules, namely: (i) maximize S = i msi for the i electrons in the shell, remembering that the orbitals can only accommodate one ↓ and one ↑ electron each, (ii) then maximize L = i mli consistent with S, and (iii) finally couple L and S to form the total angular momentum J so that J = L − S if the shell is less than half full and J = L + S if the cell is more than half full. When it is exactly half full, i mli = 0; so J = S.

4 K at room temperature. The two contributions have slightly different temperature dependences, varying as and , which leads to the spin reorientation at the Morin transition when their sum changes sign [46]. Ti, V, Cr, and Mn also form sesquioxides with the corundum structure. Of these, the most interesting is Cr2 O3 , which has a different antiferromagnetic stacking below its N´eel point T N = 306 K. It exhibits no spin reorientation, but it is magnetoelectric. This means that a small magnetic moment can be induced by an electric field.

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